Cyber Security and its Importance – Chapter 2

Cyber Security and its Importance – Chapter 2, Understanding the terms involved in Computer protocol. Stay safe!

Cyber Security and its Importance – Chapter 2

It’s fun to see you guys excited about the course and the response was too overwhelming! Today we are going to learn about computer protocol!

What is a Protocol?

Well, Protocol is a digital language through which we can communicate with others on the Internet. Let’s break this statement into a smaller statement or an easy definition this is a set of mutually accepted rules for the proper exchange of information. Note: By mutually I mean that it is accepted on both the sender and as well as on the receiver.

What is a Protocol?

Types of Protocols?

  • TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol
  • DHCP: The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
  • DNS: Domain Name System
  • FTP: File transfer protocol
  • ARP: Address Resolution Protocol
  • HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol

What is TCP/IP?

TCP is also known as transmission control protocol this is used for communication over and network. In this, the data is broken down into small packets and then it is sent to the destination like you might have studied in physics that will light falls on a particle or any substance.

You all know that light contains photons photos and nothing but packets of energy similarly data is broken down into small packets and it is been transferred to its destination this work is done by TCP. So, what is the work of Internet Protocol? Basically, IP works with TCP and it is also known as the addressing protocol.

What is TCP/IP?
What is TCP/IP?

Well, IP addresses these packets and show them the route to the destination. IP work is to show them the route towards the destination let’s take an example I want to travel to my friend who lives in New York, United States of America and I live in Florida and I want to deliver him some packets of candies to his home so what I will do is I will go to the airport and I will take a flight to NY, well in this flight is nothing but TCP transmission control protocol and the packet of candies is nothing but data and the pilot who knows the direction from Florida to America is nothing but the Internet protocol.

What is FTP?

FTP per file transfer protocol well this is basically used for transferring file as the name suggests two different networks so these files may be, text files multimedia files or any type of files so in this way is this way the file transfer is quicker than other methods.

What is SMTP?

SMTP means simple mail transfer protocol this type of protocol is used in mail email services like Gmail and SMTP managers the transmission and outgoing mail over the internet SMTP is used for sending and receiving mails.

What is http or hyper text transfer protocol?

This is based on the client and server model. HTTP is used for making a connection between the web client and the web server and HTTP shows information in web pages let’s take an example when you log in to any of these websites like Facebook or Instagram you might have seen that on the address bar on the URL, that is a uniform resource locator is https. Https nothing but hypertext transfer protocol which you see on the address bar.

What is ARP: Address Resolution Protocol?

ARP or Address resolution protocol this is a network protocol that is used to find out the hardware or the Mac address of a device from its IP address it is used when a device wants to communicate with some other device on a Local Network.

What is DHCP: The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol?

DHCP means dynamic host configuration protocol this is a client server model like the http and DHCP assigns and IP address to any device on the network so that they can communicate using an IP.

What is DNS?

The DNS or domain name server or domain name system is an internet equivalent of a phone book like you have seen in phone books that generally contains a lot of numbers maybe thousands or 10,000.

What is DNS?
What is DNS?

Similarly, this directory that is domain name server is a directory of the domain name and what does DNS to DNS translate them into IP addresses. Now you would be thinking that why is it necessary to translate them into IP addresses?

It is necessary because all the domain names are easy for people to remember. Computers are machines access websites based on IP addresses when you type of web address example your internet service provider ISP views the DNS associated with the domain name translate it into a machine-friendly IP address for example 74.1 25.2 4224.

The machine recognizes and directs your Internet connection to the current website this is the manner in which the computer identifies your target website.

What is SSL?

SSL is nothing but a secure socket layer this is a kind of standard security protocol for establishing an encrypted connection between the web server and web browser in online communication.

SSL of my website
SSL of my website

I guess this picture explains it all so and SSL certificate is always necessary to create an SSL connection. Well, as you can see in this photograph the https has a Padlock symbol for this is nothing but an SSL certificate this green Padlock symbolizes SSL certificate this is a live example of my website (

It has an SSL certificate because you can figure it out by the green Padlock symbol this is nothing but an enlarged view of SSL certificate let’s look at this definition of encryption as mentioned in the previous article like encrypted file, so you can get the meaning of encryption.

Encryption is the conversion of simple data into Complex code to prevent unauthorized access we can understand this by a simple example that if I have to share something with you I will encrypt and give it to you with a passkey personally so that no one can read it or decrypt it. Now I have given the key and you can decrypt and my decrypted file will be the same as my file that was originally so this is one of the best ways of protecting your data.

What is TLS?

TLS is nothing but transfer layer security, this is a kind of protocol that provides privacy and Data integrity between two communicating applications. It is just similar to SSL but a bit more Complex than SSL.

Let’s look at https I guess you might have seen this in the previous slide with https is hypertext transfer protocol secure this is a secure version of HTTP as I have explained in the above article. In HTTPS, the S stands for secure it means that all the Communications between your browser and the websites are encrypted.

Well, https is often used to protect highly confidential online transactions like banking and online shopping order forms to you might have seen this https SSL certificate in Amazon Facebook or Instagram all these Legend sides and now Google always uses this is a ranking factor in SEO.

What is SSH?

SSH is also known as a secure shell for the secure socket. Shell is a network protocol that gives administrators a secure way to access a computer over an unsecured network so strict self provide strong identification in encrypted data communication between two computers connected over an open source.

What is SSH?
What is SSH?

Such as the internet access is widely used to manage systems and applications remotely going to log on to another computer over a network execute commands and move files from one computer to another to this is just a great way of using your computer or device to access on a remote level as well as to execute commands.

This is it for today’s chapter, comment down and let us know your feedback on this as well :). Do share and like the content, we appreciate it! Any doubts or concerns can be directly asked in the comment section.

Cyber Security and its Importance – Chapter 2

Rajat Singh
Rajat Singh is the chief Author at Bioinformatics India, he has been writing for the past 3 years and has a special interest in SEO, Technology, Health, Life Sciences and gaming.

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