Computational Toxicology: Detailed Overview.
People are exposed to chemicals every day so we need to ensure that these chemicals are safe the best way to do this is by means of toxicology risk assessments so to do this as effectively as we can in the field of computational toxicology, we need the resources to do so and be able to react efficiently for a large number of advent chemicals.
Computational toxicology helps us in ways we could never have done before to make safety decisions quicker and easier, so this is very exciting, I believe, so that we can introduce these modern techniques and that we hope will move toxicology away from an observational science that has always been focused on animal studies to one that we will learn mechanistically.
What is nice about science toxicology is that you do not have to study a certain history in the past in order to be a toxicologist so I speak to youth at the career shows every time who have been on biological science chemistry history all of medicine and all of them are able to join toxicology science because of the interdisciplinary nature of the topic.
What is Computational Toxicology?
Computational toxicology is the “Application by math and computer models to predict adverse impacts and to improve understanding of the single or several mechanisms through which the chemical induces harm” says the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
In a broader context, computer toxicology has emerged and combines toxicity pathology knowledge and pertinent chemical / biological data in order to inform the development, testing and verification of the computer-scale models used to gain insights into the mechanisms by which a given chemical causes harm.
Computational toxicology also seeks, by using high-informational data, new biostatistical methods and computer power to analyse these data, in the management and detection of the patterns and interactions of large biological and chemical data.
Worldwide, there are more than 80,000 chemicals common, and every year hundreds of new chemicals and chemical mixtures are put on the market. Due to the tradition of costly, time-consuming animal-specific toxicity tests, only a small fraction of these chemicals are sufficiently risk-assessed.
Apart from these chemicals that are environmentally relevant, medicines are another class that needs to be tested for its toxicity. For new drugs, the cause of toxicity remains substantial in the later stages of development. In the pharmaceutical industry, assessment of toxicity is hampered by the large amounts of in vivo compound required lack of reliable in vitro high-performance tests and the inability of in vitro and animal models to properly predict certain toxicities for humans.
What Are Some Application Areas for Computational Toxicology?
Some of the principal application areas for computational toxicology
- Hazard and risk prioritization of chemicals
- Uncovering mechanistic information that is valuable in tailoring testing programs for each chemical
- Safety screenings of food additives and food contact substances,
- Supporting more sophisticated approaches to aggregate and cumulative risk assessment
- Estimating the extent of variability in response in the human population
- Pharmaceutical lead selection in drug development
- Safety screening and qualification of pharmaceutical contaminants and degradation products
- Safety screening of drug metabolites.
What Are the Major Fields Comprising Computational Toxicology?
Computational Toxicology is highly interdisciplinary. Field researchers have backgrounds and training in toxics, biochemistry, chemical sciences, environment, math, statistics, medicine, engineering, biology.
In addition, the development of modelling in computational toxicology has also been what is supported by the development, in a number of fields, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, glycomics, and lipomics.
Who Uses Computational Toxicology?
A broad spectrum of international organizations is involved in the development, application, and dissemination of knowledge, tools, and data in computational toxicology. These include
Government agencies in
- The USA (EPA, Centers for Disease Control, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry).
- Europe (European Chemicals Agency, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection).
- Canada (Health Canada, National Centre for Occupational Health and Safety Information).
- Japan (National Institute of Health Sciences of Japan).
- The USA state agencies.
- Not-for-profit organizations.
- National laboratories.
- Nongovernment organizations.
- Military laboratories; private industry.
What Are Some Current Areas of Research in Computational Toxicology?
Computing methods to assess genetic toxicology are some of the themes recently published in the field of computational toxicology.
- Predictive toxicology based on structure.
- Computer science and machine toxicology learning.
- Estimation of biological pathways associated with toxicity.
- Computational approaches to human genetic sensitivity assessment
- Evaluation of chemical activity profiles evaluated for biochemical objectives.
- Nanoparticles pharmaceutical modelling.
- Quantitative structure-activity toxicity prediction relationships.
- Carcinogenic power in silicon prediction.
- Toxicology virtual tissues.
- Public computer toxicology what is supporting databases.
- Regulatory use of tools and databases for computer toxicology.
- Computational approaches for assessing the effects on key transcription regulators of environmental chemicals.
- Molecular modelling for estrogenicity screening of ambient chemicals.
- Predicting machine learning approaches to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
What Are Likely Future Directions in Computational Toxicology?
Progress in computer toxicology is expected to make it possible for the transformative change in toxicology called for in the recent report of the US National Research Council called for “Toxicity Assessments in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy.”
- Expand the use of high-performance test methods to assess the environmental backlog toxicity of thousands of industrial chemicals.
- To inform computer models by the continuous and expanded application of “omic” technologies.
- Acquisition of new biological data for more realistic computational endpoints at therapeutic or physiologically relevant exposure levels.
- Prediction of adverse results in specific humans of environmental chemical and pharmaceutical exposure.
- To set up databases that include both chemical and biological information, curated and widely accessible.
- Create gene-environment interaction, characterization models.
- Develop approaches to cellular response predictions and dose reactions biologically based.
- Use genotoxicity and carcinogenicity for illumination mechanisms and bridges.
- Include rigorous estimates of incertitude in models and simulations.
- Implementation of animal utilisation strategies in bioassays to answer specific questions more efficiently and efficiently.
- Generating models to evaluate the effects of chemical mixtures using system-level approaches covering the pathways.
- Development of toxicological virtual tissues.
Computational Toxicology: Detailed Overview
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