Biotechnology & Types of Biotechnology
“Biotechnology is an extensive field in which cells and biomolecular processes are utilized to establish technologies that contribute to improve people’s health and lives.”
What is Biotechnology?
Biotechnology is the field which exploits organisms to advance technology for the advancement of the human race in various fields. It has applications in both the medical and farming fields. Living organisms biological processes are used to manufacture basic goods like bread, cheese, alcohol, etc. for more than 6000 years.
Biotech Week is the celebration of all biotechnology sectors, as we address the big issues facing society and today’s environment. Biotechnology is readily understood as pharmaceutical drugs and health therapies, but it has a greater effect on our lives. Let’s look at several other ways in which Biotech has an effect on us to celebrate Biotech Week here at LSC.
In our planet, the complexity of biotechnology has led to the need to identify biotechnology based on some common elements or their final objective. Below are some of the major fields in colour-classified biotechnology.
Let us look at the different biotechnology types and applications in different fields.
Types of Biotechnology
Biotechnology is divided into the following types:
1. Medical Biotechnology/ Medical Biotech
The use of live cells to build technologies to improve human health includes medical biotechnology. The use of these instruments is needed so that human health can be maintained more effectively. It also helps to recognise the causes of and strategies for genetic diseases in the study of DNA.
With the aid of medical biotechnology necessary for human health, vaccines and antibiotics have been produced. Various plants are engineered with genetic engineering to create biological antibodies.
Medical Biotechnology Examples
Vaccines are chemicals that allow the body’s immune system to resist viruses stronger when attacking the body. These accomplishments are rendered by introducing the disease in the bloodstream in attenuated (weakened) versions.
It causes the body to respond as if it was infected by the disease without attenuation. The body combats the weaker pathogens and takes note of the cell structure of the pathogens through this phase and has certain cells which ‘call’ the disease and store information in the body.
The development of antibiotics that battle human pathogens has been increasingly improved. Many plants are cultivated and processed to produce antibodies.
The method is cost-effective since plants can create these antibodies in greater amounts than cells or remove them from animals.
2. Biotechnology for Agriculture
This area focuses on the production of GM plants by adding the plant gene of interest. In exchange, this allows the crop yield to increase.
Various plants that are immune to plague are produced by transferring genes from the Bacillus thuringiensis to plants like Bt-cotton and Bt-brinjal.
In order to achieve the desired characteristics, the animals with the desired characteristics are bred together.
Farm biotechnology examples
Prone to pesticides
Instead of having to dust and spray with chemicals, biotechnology produced techniques for developing cultures expressing anti-pest characteristics naturally, which makes them highly resistant to pests. An example of this is the transmission of the fungal genes Bacillus thuringiensis to plants.
It is because the fungus produces a highly effective protein (Bt) against pests such as the European corn borer. The Bt protein is the desired function scientist who wishes the plants to have and hence the gene causing Bt to express in the fungus has been identified and translated into maize.
Farming of plants and livestock
Since farming started, selective breeding has been an activity involving people. The realistic method involves selecting animals with the most suitable features for breeding so that they are also represented by the resulting offspring.
The desirable features were larger livestock, more disease-resistant livestock, and more domicile animals all built to make the agriculture process as cost-effective as possible.
This is a molecular practise that has been transferred with the same target. Different characteristics of animals are chosen and animals and plants with those characteristics are selected and bred to pass these characteristics once genetic markers have been found out.
3. Industrial Biotechnology
The application of biotechnology for industrial purposes, including for industrial fermentation, is Industrial biotechnology. It enhances productivity and decreases the multifaceted environmental impacts of industrial processes such as paper, pulp, chemical processing and textiles through the use of modern molecular biology techniques.
It encompasses cells like microorganisms or cells like enzymes to manufacture goods in industrially useful sectors, such as food and feed, chemical products, detergents, paper and pulp, textiles, biofuels and biogas.
There is substantial progress in the current decade in the production of GMOs (genetically modified organisms) that increase industrial biotechnology’s variety of uses and economic viability.
In addition, renewable raw materials are used to manufacture a range of chemicals and fuel and step away from a petrochemical economy, which actively encourages reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.
Commercial Biotechnology Examples
The industries of biotechnology including enzymes have produced biocatalysts for the synthesis of chemicals. Enzymes are all organisms’ proteins. Biotechnology can be used for the industrial development of the desired enzyme.
Sugar can be fermented into acid and then used as an intermediate in the processing of other chemical feedstock for different products. Other plants, such as maize, may be used for chemicals instead of petroleum.
Microorganisms are used to design and produce new plastics/textiles and to create new renewable energy sources, such as biofuels, in chemical processing.
4. Environmental Biotechnology
The technology used in waste management and pollution prevention is environmental biotechnology, which can better clean up a number of compared with traditional methods and reduce our reliance on land disposal methods.
Each body ingests nutrients and produces consequently by-products. However, various species need various kinds of nutrients. Some bacteria often live on waste product chemical components.
In order to activate the bacteria that already live in the soil on the waste site or add new bacteria to the soil, Environment engineers introduce nutrients. The bacteria are used to digest the waste on the site and thereby render it harmless.
Examples of Environmental Biotechnology
The use of bioremediation methods helping the production of enzyme bioreactors that not only prevent industrial and food waste components but enable their efficient removal by means of a water system without the use of solid waste disposal mechanisms is referred to as bioremediation.
Biotechnology & Types of Biotechnology