3 Secrets Of Learning & Memorizing
What are you studying? If you are like other teachers, read the textbook and your notes, and read them again your favorite technique. You might think it’s the perfect way to learn to read and reread. This is not the case.
Psychological testing has discovered many secrets for literacy. We’re going to warn you about the real thing, which has proved itself to be working in research labs and high schools.
When we have only a single word to say the secret, it would be: the secret is to challenge yourself on what you have learned – to ask yourself questions, to discover the answers, to go further, and to re-study what you hadn’t understood. And even after you learn it, you need to continue to test yourself periodically during the class, so that what you know is learned.
Okay, that’s two words, but we snuck in one more, these secrets are so precious. In more depth, these are the secrets to master and do the classes well.
Before Learning/ Before school
Your teacher has given you some textbook readings and probably other outlets. How are you going to learn all this information?
Using the 3R technology: Read. Recite. Review.
Let’s suggest that by your next class you can read a chapter. Using these three fundamental steps:
- Read a chapter: Then shut the book and cover your notes.
- Recite everything you can recall what you read: You don’t have to have amazing facilities. You may talk to yourself, a friend, a cat, or even to a cafe in your room.
- Check the segment by reading it again to correct something that you didn’t, or to review crucial details you didn’t know when you recited.
In one study comparing the efficacy of different study methods, students read long encyclopedia entries in three classes. One community was using 3R; a second twice read the articles and didn’t do anything else; a third once read the articles, when reading notes.
All took the same exam a week later. The students using the 3R technology did much better than the students using the other methods on the exam. Moreover, students needed less time than reading and writing notes to use the 3R technique.
One explanation for this approach is that you see what you had difficulty recognizing, knowing, and recalling quickly in practicing the second R, so that you know what to reflect on when you make the third R: analysis.
You cannot read your textbook on an easy, superficial level in the same way as you update your Facebook page. Many students believe that the mind is a bin or a sponge, you just give it knowledge and it resides there. Sorry. Sorry. You have to process it before you get the details to remain there. When you want to grasp something, you indicate to your brain that the “something” should be recalled.
As you learn, an outstanding way to do this is to attempt to link the latest knowledge with information you already know. Suppose you read the four fundamental psychological research viewpoints (biological, learning, cognitive, and sociocultural). Taking each, you might think about examples you have read about and that are important to your own life: ‘Some of my friends take drugs to treat their depression or anxiety.
Use your Imagination
Students visualizing thoughts better recall them than students who don’t. The essential aspect of this approach is to communicate with your pictures. Given all that you could read on, “Train your brain! “Websites, you don’t have to create weird pictures; you just need to connect with the images. So in chapter 4, you can see that “glia cells” (for the Greek term “glue”) are the brain’s most common cell and have neurons in place, squirting a large bottle of glue, called “glia” in neurons.
Suppose you only read the material in the first section of a chapter, and the time is right for you to start the recitation process. Begin by trying to remember everything you can. Then, on the first page of the chapter, see the contour and use it to jog to recall your memories. Check the terminology on the edges, cover them up, and try to describe them in your own language.
Please insert your answers, or talk them to your computer, tablet, or phone, so that you can play them later. Take a note of something that you cannot recall, but don’t yet look up the answers. If you have completed, go back and see how well you understood the words inside the margins or answered the questions in the exams.
You are ready to review now. Go back to the chapter’s beginning and read it again. Bear in mind the bits that have tipped you up when you read; make sure that you can respond last time when you finish.
What to do during class
Just keep your head up and your pen down
It is important to take good notes in the classroom. There is a balance to note: on the one hand, you want your notes to be correct and complete; you don’t want them to be transcribed, so it’s difficult to find very important things.
The greatest social psychologist on the field, Elliot Aronson (2010), wrote this about his first year as a college psychologist: “I found I have never known how to be a student. The first thing I didn’t even know about taking notes. I would sit in the classroom, listen to the lecture, scribble with frustration. At the time of the mid-semester tests, I pulled my lecture notes and found them practically incomprehensible.”
When you listen to your teacher, remember how what you hear is related to what you already know. Write down key terms, sentences, and paragraphs, not complete phrases like a court reporter does. The collection of what you hear and its distillation into its main components help to make the knowledge more relevant.
You will think that you do not have to take any notes if instructors let you record their lectures and post their slides online. But recordings and slides can not make you consider and neither do they take examinations.
What to do after class
Process your notes
Do what Elliot Aronson (2010) did as soon as you can after class. After doing badly in his centers, he came up with a new strategic plan thanks to his lousy note: ‘At the end of every lesson, I would find a little nook — often the next stairway — over my scripted notes, read it carefully in one or two pages. At the end of the semester, my notes defined the heart of the race when it was time to prepare for the final.
More than that: The scope and pattern of the teacher’s thought and how the lectures fit with the readings were exposed. I took the first step in mastering the art of reaching the essence of a subject… I noticed that I really liked to learn and, perhaps most importantly, I learned to think critically and to question unsubstantiated statements. I knew for the first time in my life what a student was going to be.”
That ‘aha! “You can hit the experience, too. When you check your notes, zero on the class details. If your notes have doodles, flip flops, and asterisks, missing definitions, and phrases that make little sense, arrange and rewrite them. Please complete the missing definitions or other details by reviewing your textbook or notes of your mates, or by asking a teacher or mentor. These exercises are another way to test yourself and fill the holes of what you are not sure of.
Don’t lose it until you master it
You might be tempted to skip the portions of a chapter you feel certain you know. Don’t do that. Don’t do it. Take advantage instead of a powerful research finding: students who retrieve information that they recall before do twice as well on examinations as students who skipped to re-test familiar material (Karpicke & Roediger, 2007).
Forget the cramming!
Somewhere down the way, several students believe that preparing for tests means sitting overnight, drinking coffee with a gallon, reading their textbook again, and reading notes so many times that their eyeballs bleed. In reality, most students decide what they want to learn next based on what is next (or overdue). Few students plan their research in advance and then stick to it (Kornell & Bjork, 2007).
The problem with cramming is that it gives you mistrust that you know the content. In fact, while you will remember some of them for a while, you won’t remember them for a long time. That’s because you didn’t take the time to arrange your information repeatedly, link it to what you know and pave the new mental ways that will allow you to gather information later, like on the test. This is one of the reasons so many students blank themselves when they take the exam.
The painful all-nighters have an option. Rather than tap your energies into an awful time block, test yourself regularly during the semester, say once a week (Bjork & Bjork, 2011), and be confident the information you already know will be included in your daily exams. The secrets for tomorrow’s exams are no different from the secrets of doing well every semester.
Forget your “style of learning.”
If you have ever tested and you have been told that you are a “visual” instructor, do you find it difficult to obtain information during your lecture, particularly compared with your classmates who are said to be “auditory” teachers? Fortunately, the answer is no. There is no evidence that people learn better when they approach suits their preferences and no evidence that it is inefficient to use methods that do not fit their preferences (Pashler et al., 2008).
Visualizing content helps everyone, and the old active listening still helps everyone. In reality, research of the learning style seems to do nothing, aside from making the companies that own it a lot of money. The nine secrets of learning work with all sorts of students equally well. That means you.
In the field of psychology, you can fulfill your accuracy regarding human behavior, gain insights into political and social problems and learn strategies to regulate your feelings, to strengthen your memory, and to eliminate unwanted behaviors. We hope you enjoy your reading and note it. Ultimately, though, the tenth secret of learning is that no course or textbook can do the work for you no matter how good they are.
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Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L., III (2007). Repeated retrieval during learning is the key to long-term retention. Journal of Memory and Language, 57, 151–162.
Kornell, N. & Bjork, R. A. (2007). The promise and perils of self-regulated study. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 219–224.
McDaniel, M. A., Roediger, H. L., III; & McDermott, K. B. (2007). Generalizing test-enhanced learning from the laboratory to the classroom. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 200–206.
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Roediger, H.L., III, Putnam, A. L., & Smith, M. A. (2011). Ten benefits of testing and their applications to educational practice. In J. Mestre & B. Ross (Eds.), Psychology of learning and motivation: Cognition in education. Oxford: Elsevier.
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