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Ledger Hardware Crypto Wallet: A Complete Review


Let’s be honest! The number of options available for you when discussing crypto wallets is enormous! You simply can’t decide one amongst them, haphazardly. Therefore, understanding the concept of a crypto wallet thoroughly and being aware of all the features that are a part of it is essential before selecting it. Check Cash Forex Trade to get a piece of detailed information about bitcoin trading.

Understanding The Concept Of Hardware Wallet

Cryptocurrency is intangible! It is available digitally, but you can’t touch or feel it like the regular currency. However, it still contains value. Hence, the need to keep it safe and secure is supreme. Like keeping your standard fiat currency in your wallet and carrying it around with you, you need a wallet to keep your crypto coins safe.

Crypto wallets come in two types: hot wallets and cold wallets. The hot wallet stays connected to the internet at all times. This is an online source of preserving wallets. Unfortunately, this one feature, which is its hallmark, becomes the most significant disadvantage it offers insecurity. Being connected to the internet makes hot wallets vulnerable, and the chances of a scammer stealing your coins are high!

Hence, this is when the cold crypto wallets come in handy. Though they are a bit pricier than the other ones, they offer a higher level of security. They are in the form of a gadget, a USB’s shape, and size. Within this tiny device, you can store cryptos worth millions! There are several cold wallets out there; each has impressive features. Here, we will review one of the most popular ones, the Ledger wallet.

Get To Know About the Ledger Wallet

One of the most trusted hardware crypto wallets is the Ledger wallet, which provides its users the ability to store the coins in it safely and send and receive them. A secure chip offers the maximum level of security to the private keys. The level of protection that the ledger wallet provides is extensive. It gives its services to everyone from the crypto banks to the individual traders and from hedge funds to huge enterprises. 

Ledger wallet comes in two variants: Ledger Nano X and Ledger Nano S.

Ledger Nano S

Ledger Nano S was the first one launched by the company and the pioneer of the ledger series. Using it, you can manage as many as 27 assets. The ledger app also lets you take care of ERC tokens easily. This app works perfectly fine on an android phone and the desktop. Hence, it’s entirely your choice which one you want to go for. This gadget can manage around 20 applications, which you can install on it. However, this depends on the size of each app.

Ledger Nano X

The second variant is Ledger Nano X, the advanced version of the previous one. With the help of DeFi functioning, you can exchange your cryptos and lend them while buying or selling. At a single point in time, you will be able to collect as many as 27 coins.

With the help of this gadget, you can either use a smartphone or a computer to manage your crypto coins. You will have to link the selected device with the ledger live application. This will be possible through Bluetooth. What’s even better? It is possible to install around 100 applications in this gadget, considering they have a small to medium size.

The price of this gadget

In terms of pricing, both variants showcase a considerable difference. For instance, to buy the Ledger Nano S, you will have to pay a cost of around $59, while Ledger Nano X comes with a price tag of $119

Final thoughts

Having a crypto wallet to manage the coins is quite essential. It always keeps your cryptos safe and secure. The ledger nano is a good choice as it is easy to use. With it, you can manage as many as 1500 digital assets without worrying about a scam. In addition, it has a long battery, and you can keep its Bluetooth connected for many hours.

Tracking Of Bitcoin Addresses New Service Of The Crypto World


The protection of the information regarding where we store our investments in cryptocurrencies is essential to have them in a place where they are safe but unmissable.

Once they do neglect and lose, they are practically unrecoverable. Without said information, it is impossible to access and control the same.

Regarding public bitcoin addresses

All information regarding Bitcoin addresses is private unless users decide to make it public and allow tracking.

The main advantage for which one trusts and believes in cryptocurrencies is their protection and security in user information and wallet accounts where these crypto assets are stored.

If the information is made public, it will violate this fundamental rule of the crypto world.

Each person can have as many Bitcoins addresses as they wish and use a different one for each type of operation they carry out. They contribute to the fact that their public addresses can be traced and find users’ data and referential information at no time.

Address tracking strategies

Strategies will do developed that allow tracking information regarding Bitcoin transactions to obtain public addresses.

Tracking IP addresses; allows knowing the place of the network where the operation did carry out.

Purchase tracking; This monitoring provides information on payment data made online, where it is possible to obtain a clue that leads to the public address of the cryptocurrency.

A search of public personal information; Some public data is of great help compared with that obtained from applying other strategies and getting closer to the required information.

Cryptocurrency exchange tracking, trading, and exchange of digital currencies allow analyzing the frequency with which the user performs said operations, which are the favourites to operate, and from there obtain specific data for the outlined objective, obtain some scoop of the primary address where the cryptocurrencies.

All these tools offer the possibility of recovering Bitcoin storage addresses, which was impossible before. Still, because many investments have will be lost due to the oversight of information, experts have focused on carrying out studies that can recover this much-needed data. You can start trading your cryptos at tradermate.software.


The Recovery of addresses through tools and strategies violates the security of cryptocurrencies in the protection and privacy of user data, accounts, and transactions. However, this is one of the advantages that have the most favoured cryptocurrencies.

It is very nice to have control, autonomy, and privacy in managing our finances without being accountable or following rules before any financial institution or authority.

We must bear in mind that when investing in cryptocurrencies, we are aware and sure of the benefits and risks that this entails, among which the safeguarding of the data where the investment is stored stands out.

Since if it is lost or forgotten, it is challenging to recover it again, causing the total loss of the cryptocurrencies there.

This address recovery service is a great opportunity offered by the crypto world. Unfortunately, many investors have reported significant losses throughout history due to forgetting their login information to virtual platforms and wallets.

Although it is not to everyone’s liking because it encourages fraud and information violations, it has managed to provide peace of mind to some users who have their assets in lost digital currencies and have hope in this new strategy for their possible Recovery.

If you are part of the group of people who have forgotten or lost their address information by mistake, start studying these possibilities that this new service offers for cryptocurrencies, which day by day seek to meet the needs of users and investors.

The crypto world will be the best to grow your finances. It is constantly looking for ways to please users and attract more every day, showing itself profitable, safe, and beneficial in economic progress.

Although many users do not want their identities to recognize due to fraud’s danger, these strategies do not seek to cause harm. On the contrary, they generate greater confidence in the users so that investing is more pleasant and reliable.

Technology took over finance; what is quite complicated is that society does not advance along with these digital strategies to improve personal and global economies.

The applications only seek to give more significant benefits to the users of cryptocurrencies. However, some of them require a cost; it is the security of operating without running the risk of being scammed that is at stake.

Macroeconomic Indicators And Their Effect On Bitcoin Price


The digital or cryptocurrency market has remarkably benefited as far as 2021 is concerned; this is due to the increase in inflation rates worldwide.

In addition, the traditional market environment and the set of macroeconomic indicators have contributed to investors seeking strategies to capitalize their funds, obtaining more significant benefits than leaving them in bank accounts with nominal interest rates.

It’s happened as a result of the fact that the global economy has been dragging pandemic damage since 2020.

Market researchers have highlighted many causes that explain the impact of these indicators on bitcoin and why they make it so volatile. To start trading with bitcoin, visit Bitcoin Motion official website.

Macroeconomic Indicators with the most significant global impact

They are considered statistical tools that allow measuring the international development of an economy, as well as calculating the effect they produce separately in each of the main sectors of the economy of a country; among some sectors of the traditional economy, we find the sector banking, production, commerce, labour, among others

These indicators evaluate in specific periods when governments and their institutions want to determine the effect of external factors on their country’s economy.

Most important macroeconomic indicators

It is important to note that macroeconomic indicators affect world economies and individual and business ones, which are included in the general economy.

Inflation and exchange rate: both interrelated; inflation is the rate of increase in the price of goods and services in an economy at a given time.

In turn, the exchange rate is the comparison between two or more currencies of said prices, managing to estimate the value of the products in various currencies, thus having a reference value worldwide.

Production: in its various variables but globally, it is considered the Gross Domestic Product in its acronym known as GDP; this indicator evaluates the internal output in its different areas.

Other important indicators are:

  • Import and export rates.
  • Public debt.
  • Generation of taxes and duties.
  • Trade balance.
  • The valuation of banking entities.

All these macroeconomic indicators together are essential tools to assess the status of a given economy in an estimated period. They are part of the basic statistics to analyze a country’s economy.

The expected effect on BITCOIN

The year 2021 was a glorious year for bitcoin between its ups and downs; many individuals and corporations decided to invest in this digital currency that is considered one of the most profitable and safest due to the instability of the traditional financial market.

Many economists and specialists in the financial area estimate that by 2022, the global economy may stabilize after the onslaught of COVID-19 and the accelerated changes in the traditional economy.

Although we have seen how inflation in the great world powers is doing its thing, they expect to lower their high levels and return to their ordinary course.

The interest rates that the United States is managing have affected the value of bitcoin since it has been decreasing significantly compared to its value at the end of 2021.

What has notably influenced the investment mentality of Bitcoin users where they take advantage of bearish trends to invest the extra money they may have because it does expect that when Bitcoin goes down, its takeoff is impressive.

Many economists bet that inflation as a financial indicator greatly benefits Bitcoin; even when creating this famous cryptocurrency, its primary function was to combat inflation rates, which remains to do seen.

Only the general adoption of a digital market under the standards proposed by cryptocurrencies would allow an available evaluation of the impact of these macroeconomic indicators on its value.


The high levels of inflation, the low-interest rates on savings, and the increase in the prices of goods and services worldwide are generating great commotion because more and more people are getting involved in the digital financial market.

Even with the volatility that characterizes bitcoin, people, companies, and even governments are betting on a digital economy backed by these innovative financial instruments known as cryptocurrencies.

The future of macroeconomic indicators will be in the not too distant future in the hands of the digital market; everything points to significant financial changes, cryptocurrencies increasingly point to being the most profitable and preferred investment methods by users.

Mohit Sharma: Bioinformatician


Mohit aims to gain comprehensive technical and research experience for the ongoing trends in the field of Computational Biology and Structural Biology and wants to contribute towards technological developments in Medical and Healthcare.


  • PhD (December 2017 – Dec. 2021): Overseas PhD Research Scholar (International Joint PhD Program School of Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw and Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology) at Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Gronostajowa 7A, Krakow 30-387, Poland
  • M.S. in Bioinformatics: Padmashree Dr. D.Y. Patil University, Nerul, Navi-Mumbai, Maharashtra


  • Recipient of International PhD fellowship, Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw and Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Krakow, Poland
  • Recipient of visiting student fellowship at Institute for Advanced Biosciences, (sponsored by IAB) Keio University, Tsuruoka City, Yamagata, Japan
  • Recipient of Overseas trainee fellowship from A*STAR, Singapore

Work Experience:

University of Jammu:

Worked as Research Associate in Bioinformatics Centre, School of Biotechnology, the University of Jammu

A*STAR, SINGAPORE: Worked on “Developing specialized ontologies for transcriptional regulation and will implement these in the text mining systems” for 6 months

Organization:   Institute for Infocomm Research (A* STAR Singapore)

Bioinformatics and Biological Technical Proficiency:

  • Software: Rasmol, Cn3d, PyMol, Chimera, ChemSketch, Autodock, HEX, MOE and SwissPdb
  • Biological Tools: SequenceAlignment tools in NCBI like Blast, Fasta and ClustalW, PHYLIP
  • Biological Databases: EMBL, DDBJ, RCSB, PIR, SWISS-PROT, PFAM
  • Clinical Research: Basic knowledge of the federal regulations governing the protection of human subjects e.g. FDA, GCP/ICH guidelines
  • Lab-Techniques: Protein expression (bacterial expression system), Protein purification (Chromatographic techniques including operations of FPLCs), Biochemical and Biophysical characterization of proteins, DLS, Negative Staining TEM, Western Blotting
  • Genomics: Basic Knowledge of Sequencing Data, Quality Control and data Filtering, Reference based RNASeq and Genome Analysis, SNP Analysis, Evolutionary Analysis, Protein Modelling (abinitio & Homology based)

Technical Proficiency (Computer Skills):

  • Operating Systems: Linux/Ubuntu, Windows
  • Languages: Python (Intermediate), R (Beginner)
  • Other tools: MS Word, Excel
  • CCNA Certification: DOEACC Centre Jammu, Govt. of India

Professional Skills:

  • Good presentation, communication and inter-personal skills including negotiation skills
  • Strong general computer skills, experience with databases and scientific applications, and ability to quickly learn and master various computer programs
  • Excellent organizational skills and demonstrated ability to complete detailed work accurately and record thoroughly
  • Outstanding communication and presentation skills, Experience working within organizational matrix framework
  • Solid written and verbal communication skills, as well as demonstrated professionalism in working with colleagues
  • Excellent interpersonal skills and ability to work with diverse group of staff
  • Good organization and problem solving skills  

Publications Published/Accepted

  • Majsterkiewicz, Karolina; Biela, Artur; Maity, Sourav; Sharma, Mohit; Piette, Bernard; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Chakraborti, Soumyananda; Roos, Wouter; Heddle, Jonathan. A regular 3D lattice of gold nanoparticles scaffolded by an artificial protein cage with unusual geometry. Nano Letters. (Submitted- nl-2021-042225).
  • Dipika Jaspal, Arti Malviya, Amit Kumar Tiwari, Mohit Sharma* & Smita Jadhav (2021): Microbial consortia for industrial waste bioremedition: an insight to related patents, international Journal     of environmental Analytical Chemistry https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2021.1986703
  • A Pandey, M Sharma* 2021. Reappraisal of trifluperidol against Nsp3 as a potential therapeutic for novel COVID-19: a molecular docking and dynamics study. Future Virology, https://doi.org/10.2217/fvl-2020-0361
  • Veerala Priyanka, Neha Goel, Inderpreet Dhaliwal, Mohit Sharma*, Rahul Kumar, Prashant Kaushik. Epigenetics: A Key to Comprehending Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Family Poaceae (Preprints ID: preprints-45537)
  • Mohit Kumar Sharma*, Manoj K. Dhar, Sanjana Koul 2012. Bioinformatics: An introduction and Overview. International Journal of Engineering and Research e-ISSN: 2278-067X, p-ISSN:2278-800X, www.ijerd.com Volume 3, Issue 8 (September 2012), PP. 88-99
  • Mohit Kumar Sharma*, Manoj K Dhar, Vladimir B Bajic 2008. Using Bioinformatics Tools to create a database for transcription Factors. Abstract Book of 3rd J&K State Science Congress 26-28 February, 2008

Manuscripts Submitted/Under Review/Revision

  • Sharma, Mohit; Biela, Artur; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Borzęcka-Solarz, Kinga; Piette, Bernard; Bishop, Joshua; Kukura, Philipp; Benesch, Justin; Imamura, Motonori; Scheuring, Simon; Heddle, Jonathan.  “Shape-morphing of an artificial protein cage with unusual geometry induced by a single amino acid change”. ACS Nanoscience Au. (Submitted-ng-2021-000489).

Book Chapters:

  • Gifty Sawhney, Mohit Sharma*. Molecular Structure of Coronavirus and Transmission; 5-16, Basics of Medical Microbiology and Virology, ISBN: 978-93-90847-58-7, Kripa-Drishti Publications, Pune-Maharashtra, India, August, 2021
  • Sharma, M*.; Abiha, U.; Chugh, P.; Chandrasekaran, B.; Agrawal, N., Bioinformatics in Cancer Detection. Computation in Bioinformatics: Multidisciplinary Applications, S. Balamurugan, Anand Krishnan, Dinesh Goyal, Balakumar Chandrasekaran and Boomi Pandi (eds.) (227–242) © 2021 Scrivener Publishing LLC. (Accepted in proof) Book ISBN: 978-1-119-65471-1
  • Kumar, S.; Shandilya, S.; Kapila, S.; Sharma, M*.; Agrawal, N., DNA Microarray Analysis: From Affymetrix CEL Files to Comparative Gene Expression. Computation in Bioinformatics: Multidisciplinary Applications, S. Balamurugan, Anand Krishnan, Dinesh Goyal, Balakumar

Chandrasekaran and Boomi Pandi (eds.) (137–152) © 2021 Scrivener Publishing LLC (Accepted in proof) Book ISBN: 978-1-119-65471-1

  • Yadav, R.; Sharma, M*.; Agrawal, N., Machine Learning in Bioinformatics. Computation in Bioinformatics: Multidisciplinary Applications, S. Balamurugan, Anand Krishnan, Dinesh Goyal,

Balakumar Chandrasekaran and Boomi Pandi (eds.) (153–162) © 2021 Scrivener Publishing LLC

(Accepted in proof) Book ISBN: 978-1-119-65471-1

  • Sawhney, G.; Sharma, M*.; Agrawal, N., DNA-RNA Barcoding and Gene Sequencing. Computation in Bioinformatics: Multidisciplinary Applications, S. Balamurugan, Anand Krishnan, Dinesh Goyal, Balakumar Chandrasekaran and Boomi Pandi (eds.) (163–226) © 2021 Scrivener Publishing LLC (Accepted in proof) Book ISBN: 978-1-119-65471-1
  • Bhardwaj, R; Sharma, M*.; Agrawal, N., Bioinformatics and Its Application Areas: Multidisciplinary Applications, S. Balamurugan, Anand Krishnan, Dinesh Goyal, Balakumar Chandrasekaran and Boomi Pandi (eds.) (121–137) © 2021 Scrivener Publishing LLC. (Accepted in proof) Book ISBN:978-1-119-65471-1.
  • Gauri, Mohit Sharma, Neha Goel. Chapter: Analysis and Interpretation of Metagenomic Analysis. Springer Book: “Genomics Data Analysis for Crop Improvement”. (Submitted-under review).
  • Gifty Sawhney, Mohit Sharma, Neha Goel. Expression profile of coding and non-coding RNA Springer Book: “Genomics Data Analysis for Crop Improvement”. (Submitted- under review)

Contact Mohit? Fill the form in Detail To Help Us Understand the Scope!

JRF Recruitment: Funded Project Wellcome Trust/DBT India Alliance


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JRF Recruitment: Funded Project Wellcome Trust/DBT India Alliance, ILS Project JRF Post For MSc Biotech, Biochem, Life Sciences. MSc life sciences, biotechnology, biochemistry candidates apply for research Jobs. Interested and eligible applicants can check out all of the details below.

Advt. No. 15/2022

Institute of Life Sciences (ILS), Bhubaneswar, an autonomous institute of the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India, invites applications from Indian Nationals to join the following project position.

Name of the Post – Junior Research Fellow

No. of Posts – 01

Name of the Project – “Analysis of the impact of mRNA-mRNA/circRNA interactions in pancreatic β-cell physiology” (Funded by Wellcome Trust/DBT India Alliance)

Name of the PI – Dr. Amaresh Panda

Age Limit – The candidate should be below 28 years in age, as of 31.03.2022. Age relaxation will be given to the candidates as per Govt. of India rules.

How to Apply –

The interested/eligible candidates may download the application form from our website www.ils.res.in and apply along with self-attested copies of mark sheets, certificates, and experience details to “The Director, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar-751023”.

The decision of the Director regarding the selection of candidates will be final, and no further correspondence will be entertained in this regard. The appointment will be for ONE year.

No TA/DA will be paid for attending the interview. The decision of the Director regarding the selection of candidates will be final, and no further correspondence will be entertained in this regard.

  1. Last date for receiving an application – is 31.03.2022
  2. Date of display of shortlisted candidates on ILS website – 05.04.2022
  3. Date & Time of the interview – will be notified on the website

Note: All communication will be made through e-mail. No separate call letter will be issued to the candidates.

Eligibility – Candidates having M.Sc. or equivalent qualification in Biotechnology/ Biochemistry /Bioinformatics or allied Life Science subjects with a minimum of 60% marks or an equivalent grade point (relaxation will be as per guideline) are eligible to apply. Candidates should have qualified national-level exams such as NET/GATE/GPAT/BET. Candidates with knowledge and experience in bioinformatics analysis, cell culture, or molecular biology techniques will be preferred.

Fellowship – Rs. 31,000/- plus HRA

Click here to download the application format

Click here for Notification

Internships for International Medical Students Are Once Again In The Spotlight


Those who completed their MBBS at colleges in China, Ukraine, Russia, and others during Covid-19 by taking online classes are precarious. The Telangana State Medical Council checks students’ passports to see if they will work as house surgeons in India or overseas.

Some medical graduates who were in India during the pandemic attended the online classes, according to TSMC registrar Dr Ch Hanumantha Rao. His explanation for why they approached him for registration with the Medical Council was as follows: “They didn’t do any house surgeon or internship but obtained the certificate.” For a while, we stopped accepting new applicants, but the National Medical Commission has instructed us to resume accepting applications from Covid-19 batch members who have completed the Foreign Medical Graduates Exam.” he added.

We received guidance from the NMC, which instructed us to check the passport stampings. We are registering the names of candidates in the country where they are pursuing their degree during the house surgeon time. If we don’t, then we deny it.” An internship opportunity has been offered to students in India who are enrolled in online classes.”

According to M Harsha, a Chinese-trained physician’s assistant, “I took online training for the last two years. In China, I did not obtain any certification as a house surgeon. As a result, I’ll be doing my internship with this company.

According to Dr. Hanumantha Rao, “The future fate of students returning from Ukraine would be decided only once things settle down in Ukraine which may take several months.” In February 2016, the AP Medical Council was split in two.

Around a million MBBS doctors were in practice at the outset. Many doctors have left the workforce due to retirement, old age, or death. According to Dr Hanumantha Rao, “Some of them took NOC and got transferred to other medical councils.” “

NPFS Mental Health Counselor


Expires September 30, 2022

NPFS Intern Description for Colleges

New Priorities Family Services is a nonprofit Mental Health and Addictions outpatient program in Redmond, Oregon. Our objective is to provide services to all clients of all economic, cultural, gender, and various backgrounds. This position includes the opportunity to work with a range of cliental. NPFS offers/encourages in-person therapy. Telehealth therapy is available. We are looking for gifted, experienced, and caring counsellor students who want to promote and empower lasting change in youth, adults, and families struggling with mental health disorders. We are a co-occurring nonprofit outpatient mental health and substance abuse treatment program serving clients from ages 5years -to seniors. This allows the opportunity also to learn more about the addiction field.

NPFS are dedicated to providing a rewarding and beneficial training experience in providing but not limited to individual, family, couple, and group therapy. Interns will shadow, have mentoring and the opportunity to conduct clinical assessments, DSM 5 diagnoses, developing treatment plans, suicide assessment, safety plans, crisis intervention, case management and care coordination.

Behavioural Health Counselors at NPFS provide mental health services, case management and care coordination for a caseload of clients of various economic, social, cultural, and gender identity backgrounds. New Priorities Family Services Staff are nonjudgmental, caring, and team players. They work in collaboration with the client, their family, and the treatment team to implement developmentally appropriate individual evidenced-based clinical interventions and trauma-informed therapies that promote improved behavioural and symptom management. We seek to Deliver treatment interventions that align with best practices that are strengths-based and developmental in design.

NPFS offers staff supervision for those seeking internships, and we are collaborating with others to provide additional training and management in addition to what NPFS offers staff and interns.


Openings are available for part-time or full-time variable days/hrs to coordinate college classes and interns’ commitments. The intern and site supervisor determine schedules.

Benefits: A stipend is available to students during an internship at NPFS.

Apply Now

CSIR – Dissertation Work 2022


Eligible students pursuing P.G. Courses (M.Sc/M.Pharm/MTech) from any recognized Indian University/College in the relevant area may submit their application to be considered for pursuing their training at CSIR-IICB.

Applications will be received strictly as per the format given on our website. Academically brilliant eligible candidates may be considered for selection, depending upon the accommodation capacity available with the scientist and fulfilment of required criteria.

Opportunities are also available for short-term trainee/summer fellows through the sponsored programme from the government agencies such as Academy Summer Fellow (INSA/IAS), INSPIRE, KVPY etc. In such cases, CSIR-IICB will accept applications or recommendations from the concerned sponsored agencies. No direct application from the student will be accepted under this category. Selected students from the Biotech-RISE programme (W.B Govt, Biotech Department) are also admitted as per admissibility.

Objectives/  उद्देश्र्:

The aim is to let young minds feel the thrill and excitement of science by working on a project requiring application and critical appreciation of scientific principles.

It also aims to participate in the learning process through experimentation actively and practice the knowledge acquired in the classrooms. This program provides an opportunity to gain research experience and work closely with a scientist.

Eligibility /र्ोग्र्ता:

  • Student must be pursuing postgraduate courses from a recognized University/ Institute

/college in the relevant area.

  • He/ She must have secured at least 60% marks throughout his/ her academic career (From Secondary exam onwards).
  • Training must be essential for the candidate’s course curriculum.

Application procedure/  आवेदन  प्रक्रक्रर्ा:

The application must include:

  • Bio Data and academic records of the student as per ‘APPLICATION FORM’ [Form A] provided below.
  • Recommendation Letter (in original) from the Head of the Institution /University/Department. [strictly as per ‘SAMPLE RECOMMENDATION LETTER’ format provided below]. [Application written by the student without any institutional endorsement will not be considered.]
  • Completed applications along with all necessary documents is required to be sent by post to the address indicated at the end of this notice or may be delivered by hand to the Receiving & Despatch Section, CSIR-IICB, Jadavpur Campus. The envelope containing the

required documents are to be superscribed as “SUMMER TRAINING/ DISSERTATION WORK-2022”, indicating the month & year of the recommended training period.

A Scanned Copy of the application can also be sent by mail at – hrgiicb@iicb.res.in / artigrover@iicb.res.in /  sanjaydutta@iicb.res.in.

When to Apply / आवेदन करने का समर्:

Final applications (in hard copy) must be received by the CSIR-IICB-HRG at least 45 days before the commencement of the recommended training.

Accommodation/आवास :

The selected students have to make their own arrangements for accommodation at Kolkata during their training programme.


  • Incomplete and invalid applications in any respect will be summarily rejected & no correspondence in this regard will be entertained.
    • The decisions about the selection will be final and no correspondence will be entertained in this regard.
    • Depending upon the ownership of the college to which the candidate belongs, the training fees varies.
      • No fees will be charged from any Government Academic Institution.
      • The stipulated fees is applicable only for eligible & selected candidates from any Non-Governmental Institutes/Colleges/University

Information/ Contact/सूचना/स कश :

  • Selected trainee will be informed through email and the exact date of joining will be communicated by the concerned accommodating scientist through e-mail.
  • For any further information [except enquiry about selection or status of the application] please email at hrgiicb@iicb.res.in / artigrover@iicb.res.in/sanjaydutta@iicb.res.in
  • Guardians/students are requested not to contact the undersigned over phone or by visiting personally regarding their application status or selection.

Address for application submission/ेद  जमा  करने  के   शलर्े  डाक- ता: Dr. Sanjay Dutta

Principal Scientist

Head, Human Resource Group (HRG) Academic Affairs Division

CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology 4- Raja S.C. Mullick Road, P.O . Jadavpur Kolkata 700032

Original Link: Dissertation Work 2022

List of Benefits & Risks of Bioinformatics


Benefits & Risks of Bioinformatics: The possible advantages and disadvantages, Future, risk, everything you need to know about it today!

What is Bioinformatics?

Bioinformatics is defined as “the application of information technology to molecular biology now [through] the creation and development of databases, algorithms, computational and statistical techniques, and theory to solve formal and practical problems arising from the management and analysis of biological data”, so simple told you!

Let’s switch on to something more understandable!

Bioinformatics is a short form for ‘Biological Informatics’. This is regarded as an amalgam of biologics and informatics, and many scientists prefer to use the term computer biology a few days later. Once human genome projects were launched, the branch of science became more popular. Bioinformatics merges into single-subject biology, computer science and IT.

How Bioinformatics helps us?

As an interdisciplinary branch of life sciences, bioinformatics aims at developing methodological and analysis methods to explore widespread quantities of the biological database to support the storage, arrangement, systemization, annotation, visualization, inquiry, understanding and implementation of biological data, and as an experimental material “wet-bench” for the genome and genetic product research.

This incorporates traditional, modern informatics and cloud computing, statistics and mathematics, pattern recognition, rebuilding, machine learning, simulation, molecular modelling, and folding algorithms.

However, the growth and advancement of the biological knowledge field are closely linked to the software and computerized programming required to manage large quantities of molecular sequences of DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites and structural and functional analysis.

Well, bioinformatics can do much more than this; think about it!

What are the risks or challenges in Bioinformatics?

Health Informatics experience has shown us that accuracy and error avoidance are causing ethical problems linked to evolving treatment standards. When, for instance, new or existing database management practices are in effect, a database based system can become more or less efficient, reliable, and secure, depending on whether the database is being properly managed, checked, improved, etc.

1. Ethical Issues

Discrimination based on genetic knowledge has, in recent years, become a significant issue for patients and physicians. Genetic data privacy is more sensitive than clinical data privacy because this entails prejudice, not only against people but also against relatives who have not been genetically tested.

Ethical Issues

Furthermore, a person who has been genetically tested may make predictions about disease conditions or medical risks, including the risk of genetic discrimination. A National Library of Medicine manual states that genetic testing can cost $100 to $2,000 or more depending on the nature and scope of the trial.

Given the likely future for genetic testing to be more affordable, more people are likely to have their genetic profile, and the privacy issues of genetic data can not be ignored.

Recent court cases demonstrate the difficulties and risks associated with genetic information collection and use. The modern courts have recognized the sensitive nature of genetic information, and their recent rulings represent an evident need for more security of this kind of information.

Unauthorized access to medical records has been reported as an illegal privacy infringement. In addition, more than 100 bills relating to the use and misuse of genetic knowledge were introduced in 2000 by state legislatures. Several Working Groups, boards, institutes and the GINA Conference concluded the work on the prevalence of discrimination and made recommendations.

2. Data Storage, Standardization, Interoperability and Retrieval

Biological knowledge growth has created serious problems in data collection, recruitment and display at every level of the physical organization, from simple DNA sections to the global ecosystem. New research in nanotechnology, search algorithms, virtual-enhancing tools and more traditional approaches meets these challenges.

3. Data Publication and Knowledge Sharing

NIH also calls for the readily accessible and sharable release of all data produced by research it supports, which would lead to daunting challenges for existing strategies such as newspapers and websites.


Such issues will need to be answered in publications by the latest technologies like wikis (see http:/wiki.org/, and http:/en.wikipedia.org/) and bibliomics resources (such as TV: http:/www.telemakus.net/ and PubGene:

The very meaning of the word ‘publication,’ especially libraries, has already started to expand so that raw data from experimental experiments can be circulated and archived (see DSpace: http:/www.dspace.org /), are directly involved.

To order to help the basic science biology initiative, an increase in the usage of “telepresence” resources like Access Grid (http:/www.accessgrid.org/) and online collaboration/knowledge exchange platforms such as AskMe (http:/www.askmecorp.com/) provide existing and improved technology.

4. Analysis/annotation Tool Development and Distribution/access

The intensive production in various departments/groups of universities and other institutions of open-source bio-informatics instruments has created a need to make such ‘home brewing devices’ accessible to the general bio-recherche population.

There is no equivalent kit or electronic medical record for bio-medical scientists currently for Microsoft Office. A framework for distributing and sharing these resources through the “UW HSL Bioinformatics Resources” segment is available in the BioResearcher Toolkit (http:/Healthlinks.washington.edu bio researcher).

The web-based Protein-structure Prediction Tool developed in the UW Biochemistry Department by Dr Robert Baker, Robetta (http:/robetta.bakerlab.org/) is made accessible for users to the resources developed by national biomedical researchers and the local biomedical scientists. The BioResearcher toolkit also includes other networked software tools, such as Vector NTI and PubGene.

4. Hardware Development and Availability

Some applications in bioinformatics need massive computer resources. The development of clusters produced from readily available desktop computers (http:/www.bioitworld.com/news/O83004~reportS927.html) and specially designed supercomputing systems such as BlueGene IBM’s (http:/www.research.ibm.com/bluegene/) meets this challenge. In addition, the innovations of a new class of “BioIT” specialists, such as “The BioTeam” (http:/www.bioteam.net/), have improved the availability and use of hardware required for bioinformatics innovations.

5. Training and Education

The ever-evolving complexity of bioinformatics methods and the exponential growth of biological data have led to the need to develop better and more effective education and training programs in collecting and analyzing bioinformatics data.

Introducing and advancing training programs for the use of Bioinfunction Technologies, the EDUCOLLAB Group at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) developed a three-day intensive program for qualified students, faculty, and staff using NCBI online tools, commercial software and new growth.

Such workouts were successfully performed using devices for telepresence like the Control Grid. In addition, business training companies like OpenHelix (HTTP:/www.openhelix.com) are now working on meeting the challenge and opportunities that such education and training requirements present.

Moreover, it has become increasingly evident that a new form of occupation, “bioinformatics”, will be required to fulfil the large volume of data and research requirements arising from the digital imagery of the biosphere of the Earth.

6. Unintended Consequences

When scientists searched for clues of people who appear immune to HIV in their DNA, the resistant people found that a protein had mutated, which serves as an HIV landing pad on the blood cell surfaces. Since they appeared stable in the absence of protein, scientists have proposed that it can be the permanent cure of HIV and AIDS for removing their genes from contaminated or at-risk patients” cells.

The scientific community started envisioning almost infinite possibilities by introducing the latest “DNA Scissor” CRISPR / Cas9, promising to conduct easy gene operation for HIV, cancer and many other genetic diseases.

But CRISPR / Cas9 trials in human cells have yielded troubling results, with mutations in genome parts that should not be targeted for changes in DNA. While a bad haircut may be embarrassing, it might be far more serious about cutting CRISPR / Cas9 wrong to make you healthy rather than sicker.

And if these modifications were made for embryos, the mutations could permanently enter the gene pool, transmitting them to all future generations instead of fully formed adult cells. So far, leading scientists and prestigious newspapers call for a gene-editing moratorium in sustainable embryos until they understand better the risks, ethics and social implications.

7. Weaponizing Biology

The world is currently facing devastating effects of Coronavirus (COVID-19) and past diseases like Ebola or Zika virus disease outbreaks – but that is natural. Malicious use of biotechnology could lead to the deliberate initiation of future episodes.

Whether the perpetrator is a state actor or a terrorist group, it would be more difficult to detect and stop the development and release of a bioweapon like poison or an infectious disease.

In contrast to a bullet or a bomb, malignant cells may spread for long after being deployed. The United States administration takes this threat very seriously, and it should not take the threat of bioweapons to the environment lightly.

Developed countries and even developing countries can produce bioweapons using resources and know-how. For example, the arsenal of anthrax, botulism, hemorrhagic fever, pestilence, smallpox, typhoid and yellow fever has been rigorously assembled in North Korea, ready for an attack.

For example. It is not unreasonable to assume that terrorists or other groups also try to use bioweapons. Numerous instances of the use of chemical or biological weapons, including a fetal frightening shortly after 9/11, were recorded, which left five dead after the mail sent to toxic cells.

And the chance that a hypothetical bioweapon aimed at a certain ethnicity, or even a single individual such as a world leader, might become a reality increases with new gene-editing technology.

While traditional arms attacks may require considerably less expertise, the risks of bio arms should not be ignored. Bioweapons without a lot of expensive materials or scientific knowledge could seem impossible, but recent biotechnological advances can facilitate bioweapons production outside a specialized research laboratory.

The cost of the chemical production of DNA strands fell rapidly, so one day the printing” of fatal proteins or cells at home can be made affordable. And the publication openness of science, which was vital to our rapid progress in research, also means that Google can freely provide chemical details of deadly neurotoxins.

Indeed, it was not that the experiments were performed, that the most controversial aspect was that the researchers wanted to divide the details openly.

Benefits of Bioinformatics?

Health Care

The field of biomedical research is rapidly emerging. Bioinformatic tools help manage and analyze these data for health care as genomic and biomedical data collect.

Bioinformatics can be seen as a subdiscipline of biomedical data processing that addresses molecular biomedical challenges. This directly affects the development of new diagnostics, therapies and vaccines and an understanding of the mechanisms for infectious diseases, pathogen-host interactions, and transmission cycle.

Health Care

The availability of bioinformatics tools contributes by identifying genes susceptible to diseases and developing a range of new treatments to achieve the potential benefits of a human genome project by predicting patients at risk for adverse reactions or patients with a higher probability of improved efficacy.

A bioinformatics approach for understanding proteomic data can accurately correlate patient response clinical parameters with a specific therapy.

The detection of genetic makeup leads to a better understanding of genes that cause or contribute to diseases and helps medical workers prescribe the right medicine for each person.

Moreover, this knowledge may prevent the negative side effects of the”one-size-al” drug prescription method, which is often used today. It is also likely that bioinformatics leads to new disease classifications. Traditionally symptomatic disease (phenotype) may be reclassified based on genetics (genotype).

Drug Discovery

The process of drug discovery is complex, time-consuming and costly. Typically, the development of a candidate medicine takes about five years, while clinical phases, which could lead to commercial availability, are even more time-consuming at a total cost of more than $700 million.

Pharmaceutical industries focused on the rational, structural drug design from the trial and error process of the discovery of drugs. A successful and reliable method for drug design can reduce the time and costs of developing useful drug substances.

Drug Discovery

Computation methods are applied to predict the ”drug-like” that is nothing but identifying and removing candidate molecules in the later stages of discovery and development.

Genetic algorithms might predict drug resemblance. Genomics has become an important source of drug targets, and the bioinformatics industry is critical in finding new targets and validating them to minimize laboratory investments.

By providing useful information to target candidates and correlating this information with biological pathways. Bioinformatics tools can understand how and how a particular compound works and help clarify a disease’s pathophysiology.

Many tools for drug discovery have been developed. BioSuite has been designed to incorporate the functions of the macromolecular sequence and structural analysis, chemoinformatics and the algorithms used to help discover drugs.

DOVIS: a utilities-based software for high-performance virtual testing using AutoDock as a molecular docking virtual testing is a major tool used to reduce the number of chemical compounds that can be examined significantly in drug discovery.

Forensic Analysis

Bioinformatics and forensic DNA are interdisciplinary and draw on statistics and computer science to deal with biological and juridical problems. The two main subjects of forensic DNA analysis are personal identification and relationships with other people.

Forensic Analysis

The electronic laboratory information system for logging and tracking the large scope of samples, together with the bioinformatics tools used for the research in the DNA database, requires management, analysis, and comparison of a large number of biological samples and DNA profiles.

The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) loci Short Tandem Repeat Enhanced is followed by bioinformatics instruments to determine the presence or absence of STR alleles in connection with samples such as GeneScanTM and GenoTyperTM. Whenever crime scene investigations require the identification of bacteria, insects and plants, genomic sequences can be micro-arrayed and analyzed using standard techniques of bioinformatics.

Bioinformatics tools such as CODIS (Combined DNA Index System), DNA-View, MDKAP (Mass Disaster Kinship Analysis Program), MFISys (Mass Fatality Identification System) were used for forensic analysis of the World Trade Centre disaster, New York, USA, September 11, 2001. DNA database searching
bioinformatics tools have also been used for the South Asian Tsunami disaster victims.

Many more, can’t cover it all together!

Best Bioinformatics Colleges in India


Students get curious when someone asks them about their plan; in India, students, while pursuing their higher secondary, come up with many options to opt into, but they are unclear about the path involved to reach there.

There are numerous occasions where the student ends up being in a nonreversible situation where they can never come back to fix the current state. A couple of advanced science courses have exciting careers and scope concerning the recent advancements in the field, such as Bioinformatics & Biotechnology.

Students know about the course but cannot find the best Colleges/ Universities from where they can learn the best of the domain. In a country like India, where education has become a business, hundreds of schools and colleges provide the course but aren’t qualified enough to help students explore the domain. 

No worries! If you want to pursue your career in Bioinformatics and looking for the best professional institutions in INDIA, here is the list and how to seek information from them about your questions.

1. Institute of bioinformatics and applied biotechnology (IBAB)

Institute of bioinformatics and applied biotechnology (IBAB)

IBAB is an independent nonprofit institute established by the Karnataka Government, the IT, the BT and S&T departments. It is located on a campus of 20 hectares in the South of Bengaluru City.

With the financial support of ICICI Bank, the Government of Karnataka Department of Informatics and Biotechnology created the Institute in 2001.

Professor Manju Bansal, IBAB’s first director, is a Bengaluru Indian Institute of Science professor. For the first three years, she was with the Institute. Prof. N. Yathindra from the University of Madras succeeded her in 2004.

In June 2009, IBAB moved to its campus in Biotech Park, Electronic City in Bengaluru, located at the International Tech Park. The academic block of the new campus has a capacity of 30.000 sq ft in its first phase.

There is accommodation for almost 100 students on three floors, a men’s hostel and a dining room. A surrounding 40,000 sq. Furthermore. In December 2015, his first incubator was hosted by ft. Life science and med-tech incubator.

Website: IBAB

2. SCIS, Jawaharlal Nehru University

2. SCIS, Jawaharlal Nehru University

The School of Computational and Integrative Sciences (formerly the School of Information Technology), Jawaharlal Nehru University, presently hosts the Center for Computational & Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, a Center of Excellence of the Department of Biotechnology, Govt.

In New Delhi, the Indian state of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University School of CSI is located in New Delhi, India. Established in 2001 and affiliated with the University of Jawaharlal Nehru, it is accredited by NAAC and the UGC.

The campus of JNUSCIS in New Delhi is spread over 2 acres and offers 2 courses in 1 stream, namely Science, and 2 grades such as MSc + PhD. Hostel facilities for its students are not available. Other campuses include Academic Zone, A / C, Auditorium, ATM, Boys Hostel, Canteen, Computer Laboratory, Convo. There’s also Hall, Counseling, Fest.

Website: SCIS

3. IIIT Hyderabad

IIIT Hyderabad

Hyderabad (IIITH) is an independent university, established in 1998 as a nonprofits public-private partnership (N-PPP), and is the first IIIT in India to follow that pattern.

Over the years, the Institute has developed powerful research programmes, focusing on technology and applied research in the fields of industry and society. The institution facilitates interdisciplinary research and a seamless flow of knowledge. The IIITH research portfolio includes various world-renowned centres of excellence.

It has established various joint models of collaboration and co-innovation with a broad industry covering major national and multinational enterprises. The innovative curriculum enables students to choose their courses and projects flexibly.

In addition to academics, the Institute offers students an integral ecology that promotes art and culture, sports, society, and self-government in addition to academics. Even undergraduate students get involved in the ongoing development of technology and research – an unprecedented opportunity in India. This coexists with a strong postgraduate program with a vibrant undergraduate programme.

It currently offers both MSc & PhD in Bioinformatics.

Website: IIITH

4. Institute of Bioinformatics & Biotechnology (IBB), Pune

Institute of Bioinformatics & Biotechnology (IBB)

Our vision is to achieve global excellence in bioinformatics, biotechnology research, and workforce development. In the interests of national achievements in this modern age of biology, the Institute will promote the integration of basic research with industrial applications.

The Institute’s main features are cutting-edge technologies, quality education and research in the forefront areas.

It offers MSc Biotech that includes Bioinformatics + 6 years integrated course.

Website: IBB

5. Birla Institute of Technology – BIT Ranchi

Birla Institute of Technology – BIT Ranchi

BIT Mesra’s philosophy was an uncompromising thirst for innovation and disruption, a rich legacy of technology and entrepreneurship, and a commitment to nurturing global leadership during almost six decades of existence.

It has a lot to be credited with. It was the first department in the country to set up Space Engineering & Rocketry in 1964. It also was the first company to develop a BIT-STEP on campus to bring entrepreneurial spirit into its students.

It offers M.Sc. (Bioinformatics).

Website: BITS